Stainless Steel – Grade 409 (UNS S40900), SUS409
Fe, <0.08% C, 10.5-11.75% Cr, <0.5% Ni, <1.0% Mn, <1.0% Si, <0.045% P, <0.03% S, 6x%C-0.75% Ti
SUS409 stainless steel is a Ferritic steel that offers good mechanical properties and high-temperature corrosion resistance. It is commonly considered as a chromium stainless steel, with applications in exhaust systems of automobiles and applications that demand weldability.
SUS409 steels are also available in highly stabilized forms, such as grades S40930, S40920 and S40910. The stability of these grades is provided by the presence of niobium, titanium, or both, in the composition of steels.
|Grade||Tensile Strength (MPa) min||Yield Strength 0.2% Proof (MPa) min||Elongation (% in 50mm) min||Hardness|
|Rockwell B (HR B) max||Brinell (HB) max|
|Grade||Density (kg/m3)||Elastic Modulus (GPa)||Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (μm/m/°C)||Thermal Conductivity (W/m.K)||Specific Heat 0-100°C (J/kg.K)||Electrical Resistivity (nΩ.m)|
|0-100°C||0-315°C||0-538°C||at 100°C||at 500°C|
Grade Specification Comparison
|Grade||UNS No||Old British||Euronorm||Swedish SS||Japanese JIS|
Possible Alternative Grades
|3CR12||Easy to weld and good corrosion resistance. Heavy sections are more easily available when compared to 409.|
|SUS304||High heat resistance and corrosion resistance. Grade 304 is expensive.|
|SUS321||Better heat resistance when compared to 304 or 409.|
|Aluminized steel||Cheaper than grade 409 stainless steel, but less resistant to exhaust gases.|
Grade 409 stainless steels have excellent resistance to exhaust gas and atmospheric corrosion, superior to that of SS410 martensitic grades with 12% chromium and 3CR12. However, the corrosion resistance is lower than that of grade SS430 steels containing 17% chromium. The surface of grade SS 409 steels is liable to mild corrosion, which limits the usage of steels for decorative purposes.
Grade 409SS stainless steels offer scaling resistance at temperatures up to 675°C during continuous operation, and up to 815°C under intermittent conditions. These temperatures pertain to specific service environments.
Grade 409SS steels must be pre-heated to temperatures of 150 to 260°C before welding. Although grade 430SS and 409 filler rods or electrodes can be used during welding of grade 409 steels, grade 309SS electrodes or filler rods are strongly recommended by AS 1554.6. Care should be taken to weld grade 409 stainless steels with minimum heat, in order to mitigate grain growth.
Ductility of the welded products can be improved by annealing post-welding at temperatures of 760 to 815°C. However, this is not required for thin welded products. Welding of exhaust tubing of automobiles is carried out without filler rods.
The typical applications of 409 stainless steels are listed below:
- Automotive exhaust tubing
- Catalytic converter systems
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