All About Stainless Steel
Stainless steel is an alloy, which is iron-based and contains various combinations of other elements to give it characteristics suitable for a wide range of applications. It is also called corrosion-resistant steel or CRES, particularly in the aviation industry.
Most stainless or heat resisting steels are either melted by the electric furnace process or vacuum arc re-melted.
Heat treatment for hardness and strength is recommended mainly for the straight chromium steels. Cold working is generally utilized for the chromium-nickel classes of steel and has the advantage of increasing strength while retaining good ductility.
Stainless Steel: 13-8 Stainless Steel, 15-5 Stainless Steel, 17-4 Stainless Steel, 17-7 Stainless Steel, 301 Stainless Steel, 321 Stainless Steel
As your stainless steel supplier, we are capable of fulfilling your required lengths and widths. E Steel Sdn Bhd also has a stocking program to support long term contract for your stainless steel needs.
13-8PH is a precipitation, age hardenable stainless steel. Stainless Steel 13-8’s principal features are high transverse toughness, good resistance to general and stress corrosion cracking, and high strength that is developed by a single low temperature heat treatment.
SS 13-8 has been used in aircraft components such as landing gear and structural sections, valves, shafts, and components in the petrochemical and nuclear industries.
15-5 PH is a chromium-nickel alloy containing a 5% copper additive, which permits it to be hardened by low temperature heat treatments. The high percentages of chromium and nickel give Stainless Steel 15-5 excellent corrosion resistance, transverse toughness and forgeability.
SS 15-5 finds extensive use in the aircraft and missile industries for parts ranging from instrumentation to landing gear components.
17-4 PH is one of the most widely used precipitation hardening grades in the business. While soft and ductile in the solution annealed condition, Stainless Steel 17-4 is capable of high properties with a single precipitation or aging treatment. Characterized by good corrosion resistance, high harness, toughness and strength.
SS 17-4 is commonly used in both aircraft and gas turbines, nuclear reactor, paper mill, oil field, and chemical process components.
17-7 PH is a precipitation hardening steel capable of reaching very high strength and hardness without any loss of corrosion resistance. Surface scaling and distortion in heat treatment is eliminated by Stainless Steel 17-7’s ability to be treated at very low temperatures. In the annealed condition, it has excellent ductility and machinability. It retains remarkable mechanical and physical properties at high temperatures.
SS 17-7 is used for applications necessitating high strength, good corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. Characteristic applications include surgical instruments, springs, bearings, aircraft panels, and etc.
Stainless Steel 301, 302, 304, 304L, 316/316L, 321, 410
SUS301 Stainless Steel 301 is an austenitic stainless steel manufactured by the electric furnace process. Its chromium and nickel content are lower than most other grades, offering the advantage of a high work-hardening rate which combines cold-worked high strength with good ductility. Tensile strength and hardness increase rapidly when Stainless Steel 301 is cold rolled, cold drawn, or worked at room temperature. The standards of the aircraft industry are met by requiring adequate discard to be extracted from each ingot.
Stainless Steel 301 finds its primary usage in products necessitating great strength, but where working at elevated temperatures is not required. Used extensively in aircraft components, truck components and bodies, decorative applications, and etc.
SUS302 Stainless Steel 302 is an austenitic stainless steel. It provides useful resistance to corrosion on a wide range of moderately oxidising to moderately reducing environments.
Alloy 302 is used widely in equipment. Heat exchangers, piping, tanks and other process equipment in contact with fresh water also utilise these alloys. Building facades and other architectural and structural applications exposed to non-marine atmospheres also heavily utilise the 302 alloys.
SUS304, SUS304L Stainless Steel 304 decreases the carbon content and thereby eliminates the possibility of intergranular corrosion. This low carbon alloy is most often utilized for applications requiring welding. An Extra Low Carbon alloy, Type 304L is also available for especially severe welding applications. Type 304L has the capability to avert any detrimental precipitation in the extreme 800° F. to 1650° F. range.
Both types are extremely popular in the food and dairy industries and for use in pharmaceutical equipment. It is exceedingly useful in applications where good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance are essential. It is highly desirable for products such as instrumentation where non-magnetism is fundamental. These grades are available in a wide range of forms and finishes.
SUS321 Stainless Steel 321 is non-heat treatable and non-magnetic in the annealed condition. This alloy contains 18% chromium, 8% nickel and a substantial addition of titanium. The titanium forms insoluble and stable carbide, which ties up all the carbon in the alloy and therefore prevents it from precipitating as chromium carbides. This leaves the chromium in solution to resist corrosion to a very high degree. This is extremely beneficial in high temperatures, as it eliminates the necessity for re-annealing after fabrication.
Stainless Steel 321 is used principally for applications involving welding or sustained elevated temperature operations where re-annealing is not practical, It is used extensively in the aircraft and missile industries for engine parts, heat exchangers, exhaust stacks, rocket engines, manifolds, and etc.
SUS347 Stainless Steel 347 with its columbium and tantalum content, is a stabilized stainless steel. 347 stainless steel has a high resistance to prolonged heat and corrosion making it well suited for engine, power generation, welded fabrications and other high heat applications. 347 stainless steel offers good mechanical properties with higher creep and stress rupture characteristics than other grades.
SS347 stainless steel is widely used in aircraft exhaust, collector rings, expansion joints and in high temperature chemical processing. 347 stainless steel is also advantageous in applications that require omission of the annealing process after welding.
SUS410 Stainless Steel 410 is a magnetic, martensitic, heat treatable alloy that is 12% straight chromium. It has excellent creep strength and corrosion resistance. Heat treatments may be applied to develop a very wide range of mechanical properties and hardness. It is popularly used for parts operating at high temperatures.
SS410 Stainless Steel: UNS S41000, Alloy 410, AMS 5613, ASTM A-276, ASTM A-314, ASTM A-479, ASTM A-493, QQ-S-763
Because of its high strength and versatility in heat treatment applicability, and because of its good mechanical and machining properties, Stainless Steel 410 finds usage in a wide range of applications. It is used for low-cost cutlery, food industry machine parts, pump shafts, valve parts, compressor shrouds, and abrasive applications.
SUS904L Stainless Steel 904L is a low carbon high alloy austenitic stainless steel, originally developed to resist corrosion in dilute sulfuric acid. Because of the combination of relatively high contents of chromium, nickel, molybdenum and copper, this grade has greatly improved resistance to strong reducing acids, particularly sulfuric acid. Alloy 904L tubing is non-magnetic in all conditions, possesses amazing toughness, and has good formability and weldability.
Alloy 904L is found in many applications ranging from utility scrubber assemblies, acid and fertilizer production equipment, pulp and paper processing, seawater cooling facilities and many other uses.
SUS316, SUS316L Stainless Steel 316/316L is non-magnetic in the annealed condition and not hardenable by heat treatment. 316/316L is more resistant to atmospheric and general corrosive conditions than any of the other standard stainless steels. The addition of molybdenum provides an extra measure of corrosion resistance making this grade suitable for applications involving severe corrosive conditions such as use in the chemical industries and marine atmospheres. This grade of stainless may become slightly magnetic when cold worked.
316/316L stainless generally conforms to ASTM A240, ASTM A276, ASTM A479, AMS 5648.
Alloy 316/316L is used extensively for equipment. 316/316L meets the exacting standards of the aircraft industry. Widely used in the chemical industry. Used for pumps and pump shafts, oil rig pumps and medical instruments.
Types of stainless steel
There are different types of stainless steels: when nickel is added, for instance, the austenite structure of iron is stabilized. This crystal structure makes such steels virtually non-magnetic and less brittle at low temperatures. For greater hardness and strength, more carbon is added. With proper heat treatment, these steels are used for such things as razor blades, cutlery, and tools.
Significant quantities of manganese have been used in many stainless steel compositions. Manganese preserves an austenitic structure in the steel as does nickel, but at a lower cost.
Stainless steels are also classified by their crystalline structure:
Austenitic Stainless Steel (Nitronic 50, Fermonic 50, XM-19), Austenitic (Nitronic 60), Ferritic, Martensitic, Precipitation-hardening martensitic, Duplex
Austenitic or 300 series, stainless steels make up over 70% of total stainless steel production.
Nitronic 50 Austenitic Stainless Steel
Nitronic 50 or Fermonic 50 Austentic Stainless Steel is a nitrogen-strengthened austenitic stainless steel that provides very good resistance to corrosion, abrasion and cavitation erosion, compared to alloys such as 316L and 317L. Even at low temperatures it combines strength, ductility and toughness, so suiting it to cryogenic components.
Specifications: Nitronic 50, Fermonic 50, XM-19, Aquamet 22, UNS S20910
Fermonic 50 Annealed Alloy/ High Strength Grade/ Bar and Forgings: ASTM A479, S20910-XM-19 A, ASTM A276, S20910 XM-19 A, ASTM A182 F-XM-19
Applications: Chemical equipment, especially processing sulphuric and nitric acids, fasteners, high-tensile cables, down-hole tooling, exposed marine fittings, pulp and paper production valves and fittings.
FERMONIC 50 ingots are produced to a specified melting procedure using high grade in-feed materials. Chemical analysis is carried out during analysis and on the final poured metal.
Fermonic 50 Annealed Alloy Bar shall be delivered in a solution treated condition. Solution treatment shall be carried out at a temperature above 1070˚ followed by water quenching.
Nitronic 60 Austenitic Stainless Steel
Nitronic 60 stainless steel alloy is an all purpose metal that provides excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance and low-temperature impact resistance. Nitronic 60, also considered a Super Alloy, is designed to be the best non-galling stainless steel. Nitronic 60 is a nitrogen strengthened austenitic stainless steel, with outstanding strength and resistance to wear and galling. It has corrosion resistance better than 304, and pitting resistance better than 316.
Specifications: Alloy 218, UNS S21800, Cr 17, Mn 8, Ni 8.5, Si 4, N 0.13, C 0.10, Fe Bal.
Applications: Outstanding galling resistance at both ambient and elevated temperatures makes Nitronic 60 stainless steel a valuable material for valve sterns, seats and trim; fastening systems, including nuts and bolts; screening; chain-drive systems; pins, bushings and roller bearings; and pump components such as wear rings and lobes.
The corrosion resistance of NITRONIC 60 Stainless Steel falls between that of types 304 and 316. However, experience shows that in a wear system, a galling or siezure failure occurs first, followed by dimensional loss due to wear, and finally corrosion. Galling and wear must be the first concerns of the design engineer. Although the general corrosion resistance of NITRONIC 60 is not quite as good as Type 316, it does offer better chloride pitting resistance, stress corrosion cracking resistance and crevice corrosion resistance than Type 316 in laboratory conditions. Corrosion tests are not normally performed with NITRONIC 60 High Strength.
Nitronic 60 uniform corrosion resistance is better than 304 stainless in most environments. The yield strength of Nitronic 60 is nearly twice that of 304 and 316 stainless steels. Chloride pitting resistance is superior to that of type 316 stainless; Nitronic 60 provides excellent high temperature oxidation resistance and low temperature impact.
This alloy provides a significant lower cost way to fight wear and galling compared to Nickel or Cobalt based alloys.
Ferritic stainless steels generally have better engineering properties than austenitic grades, but have reduced corrosion resistance, because of the lower chromium and nickel content.
Martensitic stainless steels are not as corrosion-resistant as the other two classes but are extremely strong and tough, as well as highly machinable, and can be hardened by heat treatment.
Precipitation-hardening martensitic stainless steels have corrosion resistance comparable to austenitic varieties, but can be precipitation hardened to even higher strengths than the other martensitic grades. The most common is 17-4PH.
Duplex stainless steels have a mixed microstructure of austenite and ferrite, the aim usually being to produce a 50/50 mix, although in commercial alloys the ratio may be 40/60.
Zeron 100 Super Duplex Stainless Steel
Zeron 100 is a super duplex stainless steel for use in aggressive environments. High strength, toughness, excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of organic and inorganic acids are just a few characteristics that make this duplex stainless steel attractive to a variety of industries. Lastly, it is highly resistant to strong alkalis and resists corrosion in many non-oxidizing acids.
Applications: Zeron 100, super duplex stainless steel is used in oil and gas industry applications, pollution control, pulp and paper, power generation, chemical, pharmaceutical, mining and mineral industries, and marine industries.
2205 Super Duplex Stainless Steel
2205 is the most widely used duplex (ferritic/austenitic) stainless steel grade. It finds applications due to both excellent corrosion resistance and high strength.
Applications: 2205, super duplex stainless steel is used in chemical processing, transport and storage, oil and gas exploration and processing equipment, marine and other high chloride environments, pulp and paper digesters, liquor tanks and paper machines.
Ferralium 255 SD50 Super Duplex Stainless Steel
Ferralium 255 SD50 has been designed to harness together the advantageous aspect of copper with the passivating elements chromium and molybdenum in order to produce a superduplex stainless steel with proven enhanced corrosion resistance in chemical and seawater environments.
Ferralium 255 SD50 is the preferred alloy for large section forgings.
Applications: Ferralium 255 SD50 is used in chemical, marine/ oil & gas, civil engineering, pulp & paper and nuclear industries.
All product forms of FERRALIUM 255-SD50 can be easily welded, and this includes welding FERRALIUM to other stainless steels. The solution heat treatment process for FERRALIUM 255-SD50 is carried out at 1070 Degrees C (+/-10 Degrees C) and this must be followed by a rapid quench, preferably in water. FERRALIUM 255-SD50 alloy can be readily machined and it has been found that its machinability is superior to other superduplex stainless steels. Hot forming can be carried out between 1150 Degrees C and 1000 Degrees C.